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Jerusalem

1898

Jerusalem in the middle

1581 by Heinrich Bünting

Jerusalem in the center of the world.

JurusalemMap

Kaiser Wilhem II triumphantly parades through Jerusalem.

jerusalemA

By Sambourne, 'Punch', October 15, 1898

Kaiser Wilhem "Hajji Wilhem", self proclaimed defender of Islam, dressed incongruously as a knight crusader
responding to Saladin's appeal to save the island of Crete from the 'horrible' British and French.

Our Emperor in Palestine

1898

Kaiser Wilhem II

Published in Germany, 1899

Kaiser Wilhem II triumphantly parades through Jerusalem.

Middle East Countdown to WWI

1898 - 1914

map

Mid East Countdown to WWI A

By Thomas Nast, 'Harper's Weekly'

"The World's Plunderers"

The Man Who Coined the Term "Middle East"

1902

Alfred Thayer Mahan (1860 - 1914)
American Naval officer and Theorist on the Protection of Sea Power.

Alfred Thayer Mahan

Cartoon by David Levine, The New York Reviews of Books.

"Follow the Fleet"

The Berlin - Bagdad Railway

1903

berlinBagdadMap

The Ottoman government gave permission to Germany to expand the railway line from Konya to Bagdad.
Britain regarded the line as a threat that would bypass her dominance over the Suez Canal.

berlinBagdadA

By Partridge, 'Punch', April 29, 1903

"The world is full of traps for the unwary."
The British refused to support a German concession regarding the Bagdad scheme.

berlinBagdadB

By Raven Hill, 'Punch', January 25, 1911

The First Moroccan Crisis

1905

Moroccan Map

firstMorocconCrisisA

By Partridge, 'Punch', April 5, 1905

Kaiser Wilhelm back on tour, this time as a singing Moor. Anything to split up the "entente cordiale" between France and Britain.

Theodore Roosevelt's African Expedition

1909 - 1910

map

TeddyRooseveltA

By Raven Hill, 'Punch', March 23, 1910

Roosevelt had promised to bring back big game specimens to the U.S.A. He was accompanied by his son Kermit,
a photographer who is filming over on the left side.

Turkish - Italian War over Libya

1911

Turkish Italian War map

Italy declared war on the Ottoman Empire September 29, 1911 and invaded Libya.
Turkey sued for peace on October 18, 1912.

rooseltB

By Townsend, 'Punch', October 5, 1910

The Goosestep Master
It's as easy as eins! zwei! drei!

Turkish Italian War A

By Partridge, 'Punch', October 4, 1911

Scramble for North Africa.
Libya became Italy's colonial "promised land'.

Italian Turkish War B

By Sambourne, 'Punch', November 8, 1911

The Italian army responded to Libyan resistance to the occupation with extremely harsh and brutal tactics.

The Second Moroccan Crisis (or Agadir Crisis)

1911

2nd Moroccan Crisis map

2nd Moroccan Crisis A

Taken from a German newspaper, source unknown, 1911

2nd Moroccan Crisis B

By Raven Hill, 'Punch', September 2, 1911

Gunboat Diplomacy
Britain and France projected strength in their Entent Cordiale. The Kaiser backed down, and the French
occupied Marocco. In exchange, France relinquished a chunk of the Congo to Germany.

The First Balkan War

1912 - 1913

First Balkan War map

The Balkan League, consisting of Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro declared war on
Ottoman Turkey. They were victorious and the Turks lost most of it's European territory.

First Balkan War A

By Townsend, 'Punch', January 8, 1913

1st Balken War B

By Raven Hill, 'Punch', April 2, 1913

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